Red Indians and how to tame them

The Elizabethans’ colonial voyages brought them into contact with a people very different level of civilisation from their own—the ‘Indians’ of the New World, as is illustrated by the account written in More »

Mormons in search of Promised Land, 1846-69

The Mormons have been described as the most systematic, organised, disciplined and successful pioneers in American history. For over 20 years they were one of the main forces driving the settlement of More »

‘Alien’ citizens in the Medieval England

Thousands of foreigners poured into England in the Middle Ages. Similar like today, they have been attracted to England by job opportunities or possibility to study. Finding these everyday immigrants is no easy task. More »

Napoleon Bonaparte’s relatives after he lost power in France

What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte‘s relatives after he lost power in France? They could not stay in France but, perhaps surprisingly, they came to little harm – with the exception of Napoleon’s More »

When and where was the trebuchet invented?

Like many premodern technologies, it is not known when or where the first trebuchet appeared. Unlike ancient artillery, which relied on torsion (twisting) to supply ballistic force, medieval trebuchets utilised a simpler More »

 

Hitler’s bloody swastika

Hitler’s bloody swastika

The Blutfahne or Blood Flag was one of the most sacred relics of nazi Germany. Originally the banner of the fifth Sturm of the Munich SA, it was soaked with the blood of the fallen when the Munich Putsch (“Beer Hall Putsch”) was crushed in November 1923. The blood was primarily from party member Andreas Bauriedl who was shot by Munich police and then fall on top of the flag.

Carolingian House of the Kingdom of France

Carolingian House of the Kingdom of France

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne.

Theodore Roosevelt and his African safari

Theodore Roosevelt and his African safari

America’s 26th president Theodore Roosevelt, was a politician and stateman who seemed larger than life. His swashbuckingly style, his love of sport and outdoor activities, his earlier “Rough Rider” military exploits, and his capacity to grab the headlines made him immensely populat with the mass newspaper readership – especially within English-speaking world.

Five 19th century conflicts

Five 19th century conflicts

The Crimean War, 1853-56

After a long period of peace, the coup of 1851 brought Napoleon III to the French throne, dedicated to the pursuit of glory through an aggressive foreign policy. At the same time, the growing problems of the Ottoman empire opened up to the Russians the possibilities of their first territorial gains since the short Russo-Turkish clash in 1853, and was joined by Britain, France and Piedmont-Sardinia on the Turkish side in 1854-55. It was ended by negotiation when it became clear to the Russians that they could not gain their objectives.

Frankish king Louis I The Pious

Frankish king Louis I The Pious

Louis I the Pious (778 – 840) ruled the Frankish empire from the death of his father Charlemagne in 814 until his own death in 840. Under Frankish law, Charlemagne’s empire was to be divided among his three sons, but the death of his sons Pépin, king of Italy, in 810, and his second son, Charles, king of Franconia, a year later, left Louis, king of Acquitaine since 781, as Charlemagne’s sole surviving son and successor.