What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte‘s relatives after he lost power in France? They could not stay in France but, perhaps surprisingly, they came to little harm – with the exception of Napoleon’s More »
Harold II was king for less than a year, yet his rule was among the most dramatic and fateful of any ruler of England. It was dominated by his disputed succession. Harold Hardrada in Norway, and William, Duke of Normandy, both believed their claims were superior and both mounted invasion to support them.
In the middle of the 17th century England experienced a great convulsion of political and military violence, which quickly spread to engulf Scotland, Ireland and Wales. This was a true civil war, in which men and women at all levels of society, sometimes even within the same family, took different sides on issues of principle, and fought for them to the death.
Abraham Lincoln’s victory in the presidential election in November 1860 set the United States on the path to bloody civil war. Ever since the drafting of America’s federal constitution in 1787, the question of slavery had given rise to political contention and compromise. In the early years of the new American nation, several northern states adopted statutes of emancipation, while new technology and the international demand for cotton gave slave labour deep roots in the south.
Now a World Heritage Site in the kingdom of Jordan and one of the most compelling archaeological sites in existence, ‘the rose-red city half as old as time’ was by the fourth century bc the capital of the Nabataean people, who controlled the trade routes from oasis to oasis in Arabia and later allied themselves with the Romans. It was found by a 27-year-old Swiss explorer called Johann Ludwig (or Jean Louis) Burckhardt.