The baby who provoked a revolution

The birth of a male heir to James II of England made possible a permanent Catholic dynasty. Several Protestants echoed Mary and Anne’s doubts that the baby had been smuggled into the More »

Red Indians and how to tame them

The Elizabethans’ colonial voyages brought them into contact with a people very different level of civilisation from their own—the ‘Indians’ of the New World, as is illustrated by the account written in More »

Mormons in search of Promised Land, 1846-69

The Mormons have been described as the most systematic, organised, disciplined and successful pioneers in American history. For over 20 years they were one of the main forces driving the settlement of More »

‘Alien’ citizens in the Medieval England

Thousands of foreigners poured into England in the Middle Ages. Similar like today, they have been attracted to England by job opportunities or possibility to study. Finding these everyday immigrants is no easy task. More »

Napoleon Bonaparte’s relatives after he lost power in France

What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte‘s relatives after he lost power in France? They could not stay in France but, perhaps surprisingly, they came to little harm – with the exception of Napoleon’s More »

 

Memorializing Edward the Confessor

Memorializing Edward the Confessor

An anonymous author in c. 1067 completed a Life of King Edward, commissioned by his widow Edith. The second part of that work describes events that demonstrate the king’s holiness and his miracle-inducing prowess. It was this section that was then worked up by Osbert de Clare, a Benedictine monk at Westminster Abbey, in his more explicitly hagiographical Life of Edward, which was finished by the late 1130s.

Book Review: Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–1956 by Anne Applebaum

Book Review: Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–1956 by Anne Applebaum
Author: Anne Applebaum
Publisher: Allen Lane
Reviewed by: Michael Cox
Price (RRP): £25

Michael Cox praises a masterful account of the rise of communism throughout eastern Europe after the Second World War

Victorian Scotland

Victorian Scotland

By the time Victoria became queen of Great Britain in 1837 the powers of the monarch were much more restricted than those of her 18th century predecessors, and far less than the autocratic power, always greater in Scotland than in England, that kings had had before 1688. Parliament was sovereign, although the unelected House of Lords retained powers of veto over the Commons. The House of Commons itself was elected only by a minority of the adult population.

The House of Anjou-Naples

The House of Anjou-Naples

Queen Maria transferred her Hungarian dynastic rights to her eldest son, Charles Martel of Anjou (1271 – 95), who died young, and with Andrew III finding it difficult to assert his authority the Angevin claim was supported by Hungary’s Church leaders. Charles Martel’s son, Charles Robert (1288 – 1342), pursued his claim to the throne in Hungary from 1300 onwards, and his coronation as Charles I of Hungary in 1312 marks the start of the Hungarian Angevins’ dynastic history.

Bosworth Field: The battle of 1485

Bosworth Field: The battle of 1485

The battle began when Tudor’s vanguard advanced and engaged with Richard’s, at some point during the morning of 22nd August 1485. After that much is unclear. No one involved in the chaos of medieval battle could have any idea of what was happening beyond his own immediate surroundings. By piecing together a number of accounts, each from its own perspective, we can recapture some of the key moments and gather a sense of what took place. The order in which they took place, and the cause and the effect between them, is ultimately unknowable.