Category Archives: HISTORY

Who worked the Edwardian farms?

Who worked the Edwardian farms?


When Edward came to the throne in 1901 the number of farmers in England and Wales was about 225,000 according to the census of that year, a small fraction of the total population of 35.5 million. There were 620,000 agricultural labourers, and, taking into account the members of the farmer’s family, the concrators and others engaged in agriculture, a total of about 1.2 million is reached.

The Political Transformation of Medieval France

The Political Transformation of Medieval France

The first three decades of the 15th century were a time of civil war, military defeat, and political humiliation in France. The enfeebled monarchy, caught in a vise between England’s Henry V and Henry’s Burgundian ally Philip, went so far as to renounce the dauphin, the heir to the throne, and to bequeath the kingdom to Henry.

Peter II, the last King of Yugoslavia reburied in Serbia

Peter II, the last King of Yugoslavia reburied in Serbia

A state funeral of the last King of Yugoslavia, Peter II (1923 – 1970), has taken place near Belgrade in the family church in Oplenac. The funeral was also held for his wife, Queen Alexandria (1921 – 1993), his mother Queen Maria (1900 – 1961), and brother Prince Andrej (1929 – 1990). After the memorial service, they were placed in the family mausoleum. The coffins of the four members of the royal family were laid out in the centre of the church before army guards placed them in the crypt, alongside their ancestors.

The family in Ancient Egypt

The family in Ancient Egypt

While there was a considerable difference in the housing of the upper and lower middle classes, this did not apply to the family. Monogamy was the rule in Ancient Egypt. Only the pharaoh had one or more harems (in later centuries this was also the case with princes and those in the positions of power) but this did not in the least undermine the husband – wife relationship.

King Kenneth MacAlpin and the Alban kings

King Kenneth MacAlpin and the Alban kings

The centre of administration of the Pictish kingdom in the 9th century was Forteviot on the River Earn. Close by the Dunkeld, King Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) set up a new religious centre about 850AD. This was an acknowledgement of the fact that Iona was now no longer tenable as a religious capital, although the monastery was eventually re-established and it remained the burial place of Pictish kings until the time of Donald Ban.