Category Archives: MODERN HISTORY

Napoleon in caricature

Napoleon in caricature


The turn of the 19th century was a golden age of caricature across much of the northern Europe – from Russia in the east through Prussia and the Rhineland to France and Britain to the west. London, boasting artists like James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, soon became the unofficial capital of European caricature.

Victorian Scotland

Victorian Scotland

By the time Victoria became queen of Great Britain in 1837 the powers of the monarch were much more restricted than those of her 18th century predecessors, and far less than the autocratic power, always greater in Scotland than in England, that kings had had before 1688. Parliament was sovereign, although the unelected House of Lords retained powers of veto over the Commons. The House of Commons itself was elected only by a minority of the adult population.

The Black History month

The Black History month

February is Black History month. Some say that this special month is no longer necessary because African American history should be taught throughout the year. That argument minimizes the historic significance of the month itself and the opportunity it brings to set time aside to dig deeper into Black history.

Black gold: The triumph of oil

Black gold: The triumph of oil

Yet within the single lifetime of some of its oldest inhabitants today, Europe has undergone an astonishing transformation, a transformation largely wrought by a different resource – oil. The vagaries of supply of that resource from inside and outside Europe have literally changed the history of the world.

Building of the American nation: Freedom is a habit

Building of the American nation: Freedom is a habit

By contemporary standards the society that emerged from the revolution was radically democratic, in the sense of granting political franchise to a large majority of white men, and even in some cases to black men. Of course women and most blacks would have to wait many years for their due share in the political process.